Hawaii is one of those cities where people are troubled by the ruckus created by cockroaches. Once roaches infest, they can bring several diseases as they are carriers of significant pathogens.
Though there are some nineteen different species of cockroaches in Hawaii, the major and the most frequently occurring cockroach in Hawaii is American Cockroach.
What forces them to move Indoors?
Food shortage or climate conditions are the main reasons for them to take shelter inside homes. When they move indoors, they prefer to inhibit in moist and humid surroundings. They can also survive in dry regions with adequate food and water sources. Favorable temperature for these insects is between 70-80 degrees Fahrenheit.
Ranging from 1-1/2 to 2 inches, this is one of the enormous common cockroaches. They are reddish-brown. The prothorax(shield portion behind the head) has a margin of light brown or yellow color.
Life Cycle of an American Roach
STAGE 1: Eggs
An adult female American Cockroach produces an egg case after one week of mating. This egg sack is reddish or dark brown when it is first deposited but changes its color to black after a day or two. They are purse-shaped and smooth in appearance. These sacks are usually around 8 mm.
Female American roaches deposit their ootheca shortly after they are formed. The egg sacks are carried for a few hours to a few days before being left somewhere safe for brooding. They leave their egg cases in protected areas.
How do Roaches secure their Eggs?
American cockroaches use a saliva-like oral secretion to glue the capsule securely to the ground. They place them near food sources, as the baby roaches will require sustenance as soon as the eggs hatch. Each ootheca(egg sack) typically contains 14 to 16 eggs.
The lifespan of this stage is 29 – 58 days.
STAGE 2: Nymphs
Young roaches are known as nymphs. The babies are almost smaller versions of the adults, except they are grayish-brown in color. As they grow, they darken in color, becoming reddish-brown in the later stages.
The maturation of American Cockroach nymphs is heavily influenced by their surrounding temperature, but on average, it takes around 600 days.
Physical Progress in Nymphal Stage
During this stage, the nymphs will molt 10 to 13 times before they reach adulthood, shredding their skin cases each time. The young roaches will be white immediately after each molt, darkening to grayish or reddish-brown within a few hours.
During their development, American roaches progressively become larger until they reach their adult size. They will evolve wing pads during their second to the last instar. However, only the adults have wings.
Life Span of Nymph Stage
This stage varies depending on the surrounding temperature and can take anywhere from 160 – 900 days.
STAGE 3: Adults
American Cockroaches reach adulthood after 10 to 13 nymphal stages. At full maturity, they have fully grown adult cockroaches huge in size than many other species of cockroaches. They survive much longer too.
Progress in Adult Stage
It takes an average of six thousand days for an American roach to get to adulthood, and the adult lifespan of these may be a further four hundred days under favorable living conditions. This life span is quite long for an insect and is probably due to their ability to resist pathogens and pesticides.
During her adulthood, female American cockroaches will produce an average of 150 young. And although adult American roaches have wings, they rarely fly. Instead, they are often seen running speedily over horizontal and vertical surfaces.
The lifeSpan of Adulting Stage
The adult lifespan of the American roach is also heavily influenced by the external temperature. At average room temperature, adult roaches can survive for up to 400 days.